• Nouns: A noun names a person, animal, place, thing, quality, idea, activity, or feeling. It can be singular, plural, or possessive. Example: I’d like some ice in my tea.
  • Pronouns: A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, like “I”, “you”, or “they”. Example: I’d like some of them in my tea.
  • Verbs: A verb shows action and can be either a main verb (such as “run” or “sit”) or a helping verb (such as “were” or “has”). They indicate tense and sometimes change their form to show past, present, or future.
    There are also linking verbs, which link the subject to the rest of the sentence (such as “appear” and “seem”). Example: Lexi and Mark walked through the colony.
  • Adjectives: An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. It usually, although not always, comes before the noun it is modifying. Adjectives add meaning to the noun by telling which one or what kind or describing it in other ways. Example: I married my first love.
  • Articles: Articles are useful little words that can be of two kinds:
    • Indefinite articles, which refer to non-specific nouns and include ‘a’ and ‘an’. Example: Do you have a new book to lend me?
    • Definite articles, which refer to a specific person, place, thing, or idea such as ‘the’. Example: He had the most expressive face.
  • Interjections: Interjections such as ‘hurray’, ‘uh-oh’, and ‘alas’ demonstrate various emotions. They’re typically, though not always, followed by an exclamation mark. Example: Yay! I’m so excited that you’re here.
  • Synonyms: Synonyms are words that mean exactly or nearly the same as another word. Examples:
    • Funny – Humorous, comical, hilarious, and hysterical.
    • Happy – Content, joyful, mirthful, and upbeat
  • Antonyms: Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning to another word. Examples:
    • Achieve – Fail
    • Shame – Honor
  • One-word Substitution: Here, a sentence has to be replaced with a single word. Examples:
    • One who performs an activity for pleasure and not as their profession – Amateur
    • One who supervises in the examination hall – Invigilator
    • A person who breaks into houses in order to steal from other people – Thief

1. Cost Price and Selling Price

Cost Price (CP) is the price at which an article is purchased.
Cost Price = Selling price-Profit
Selling Price (SP) is the price at which an article is sold.
Selling Price = Cost Price+Profit

2. Profit or Loss

If Selling Price is more than Cost Price, Profit (Gain) occurs.
Profit= Selling Price-Cost Price
If Selling Price is less than Cost Price, Loss occurs.
Loss = Cost Price-Selling Price

3. Profit Percentage and Loss Percentage

Profit Percentage=(Profit*100)/Cost Price
Loss Percentage=(Loss*100)/Cost Price

4. Unitary Method

The word ‘unitary’ refers to a single or an individual unit. The method aims to determine values in relation to a single unit. Example:
If a car runs 44 km on 2 liters of petrol, then we can use the unitary method to find out the kilometers it will cover on 1 liter of petrol.

5. Distance, Speed, and Time

Speed is a measure of how quickly an object moves from one place to another. It is equal to the distance traveled divided by the time
Speed = Distance/Time
Time = Distance/Speed
Distance = Speed*Time

  1. Distance, Speed, and Time
  2. Cost Price and Selling Price
  3. Profit and Loss
  4. Simple Interest
  5. Synonyms
  6. Antonyms
  7. Analogy
  8. One-word Substitution